NS 15 Section 4680 TEST #3 4/16/96 NAME: ___________________________

General Directions: Answers to questions 1 through 30 will be recorded on your scantron form. Answers to questions 31 through 50 should be written directly on the test. Please read questions carefully.

PART I: Multiple Choice and True/False

Directions: For multiple choice, use letters A through D on scantron form; for true/false, use the letter A for TRUE and the letter B for FALSE.


1. What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin (B2) content of milk?

a. Airtight

b. Cardboard

c. Transparent glass

d. Translucent glass

2. Spina bifida, a birth defect characterized by the incomplete closure of the spinal column, is linked to a deficiency in which of the following vitamins?

a. Vitamin C

b. Thiamin (B1)

c. B12

d. Folacin

3. It is recommended that vegetarians who consume absolutely no animal products take a daily supplement of vitamin

a. B12

b. B1 (thiamin)

c. B6 (pyridoxine)

d. C

4. Which of the following best describes the function of a coenzyme?

a. Attaches to RNA to assist in the synthesis of an enzyme

b. Attaches to an enzyme which allows a chemical reaction to take place

c. Attaches to an enzyme which allows for transport of the enzyme through the circulation

d. Attaches to cell membranes to assist in the uptake of an enzyme


5. Niacin (B3) can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan.

T or F


6. Water soluble vitamins can be consumed in megadose quantities (10 to 20 times the RDA) on a daily basis without any adverse effects. T or F


7. Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) in human nutrition?

a. It is stored in muscle tissue

b. It can lead to irreversible nerve damage when taken in large doses

c. It is involved in protein metabolism

d. All of the above

8. The need for thiamin (B1) is directly related to the quantity of carbohydrates in the diet. T or F

9. Which of these meals is lacking in vitamin C?

a. Roast beef, zucchini, noodles, and tea

b. Hot dog, cabbage, french fries, and milk

c. Roast beef, broccoli, noodles and coffee

d. Spaghetti with tomato sauce, meatball, garlic bread and red wine


10. Anemia, a condition characterized by a low concentration of red blood cells, may be caused by a deficiency in

a. Vitamin B12

b. Folacin

c. Vitamin B6

d. All of the above


11. The following vitamin(s) function(s) as (a)coenzyme(s) in a variety of metabolic pathways

a. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

b. Vitamin B3 (niacin)

c. Vitamin B1 (thiamin)

d. All of the above

12. Minerals are not subject to change in the human body. T or F


13. Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to

a. provide energy for cells.

b. provide rigidity or framework for the bones and teeth.

c. regulate the transmission of nerve impulses

d. maintain the blood level of calcium within very narrow limits.

14. The new food label, developed by the Unites States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that the daily sodium intake should not exceed:

a. 5000 milligrams

b. 500 milligrams

c. 2400 milligrams

d. 0 milligrams since the body has no use for sodium.

15. The minerals sodium, chloride and magnesium are also known as electrolytes.

T or F

16. All of the following are known to enhance calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract EXCEPT:

a. lactose

b. oxalic acid (oxalate)

c. vitamin D

d. phosphorus in amounts similar to calcium

17. Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A?

a. Corn

b. Pumpkin pie

c. Baked potato

d. Whole-grain bread

18. The largest source of sodium in the American diet is

a. added salt from the salt shaker

b. the sodium naturally occurring in foods

c. candy and confections

d. convenience or processed foods

19. Which of the following foods is highest in folacin?

a. dairy products

b. breads and grains

c. green leafy vegetables

d. meats

20. Magnesium, a mineral which many of the class members reported to be low in the three day diet analyses, is a component of chlorophyll and therefore is abundant in

a. meats

b. fruits

c. breads and cereals

d. green vegetables

21. The vitamin D-deficiency disease which affects growing children is known as rickets. T or F

22. Which of the following contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?

a. Butter

b. Carrots

c. Corn oil

d. Milk fat

23. What is the principle function of vitamin K in the body?

a. Blood clotting

b. Energy metabolism

c. Calcium utilization

d. Epithelial tissue renewal

24. The communicable disease measles, can be fatal among children who are deficient in vitamin A. T or F

25. A deficiency in potassium may result when ___________ are omitted from the diet.

a. meats

b. fruits and vegetables

c. vegetable oils

d. breads and cereals

26. Milk, yogurt, regular cream cheese, regular sour cream, and cheese are ALL rich sources of calcium: T or F

27. All of the following are known to be involved in bone formation EXCEPT:

a. chloride

b. magnesium

c. phosphorus

d. calcium

28. The only known risk associated with excess sodium intake is high blood pressure.

T or F

29. Therapy for constipation would include all of the following EXCEPT

a. increasing water intake.

b. decreasing fiber intake.

c. increasing physical activity.

d. responding promptly to the defecation signal.

30. To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is best to

a. avoid eating meat and fruit at the same meal to prevent competition.

b. choose a variety of foods to enhance the absorption process.

c. eat several snacks per day so the system is not overwhelmed.

d. go to a naturopathic practitioner for regular colonic irrigation or cleansing.

PART II: Short Answer/Fill in the Blank

Directions: Answers to fill in the blank questions should be limited to only one word or a short phrase. One blank per questions is worth 2 points; 2 blanks per question are worth 1 point for each answer. Short answer question may be answered with a phrase or a complete sentence. Short answer questions are worth 2 points each.


31. List two arguments against taking nutrient supplements (vitamins and/ or minerals).

1. _______________________________________________________


2. _______________________________________________________

32. List two groups who are likely to benefit from the use of vitamin and/or mineral supplements. (more than two possible answers)

1. _______________________________________________________


2. _______________________________________________________

33. List two roles of vitamin A in the body.

1. ________________________________________________________

2. ________________________________________________________

34. List two functions of vitamin D in the body:

1. ______________________________________________________


2. ______________________________________________________



35. What is the fate of any enzymes that are present in the foods that we eat? (What happens to them during the digestive process?)




36. List two conditions which would lead to excess fluid and electrolyte losses from the body.

1. ________________________________________________________


2. ________________________________________________________


37. List two components in food which decrease the amount of calcium absorbed from the diet.

1. ________________________________________________________

2. ________________________________________________________

38. Briefly describe why the RDA for calcium for adults 19 - 24 years old (1200 milligrams per day), is higher than the RDA for adults 25 years of age and older (800 milligrams per day).





39. List two life-style modifications you can make or improvements to your diet that will reduce the bone mineral losses that are a natural process of aging.

1. _______________________________________________________


2. _______________________________________________________


40. If a person refrained from ingesting any of the water soluble vitamins, deficiency symptoms would appear last for vitamin ___________ due to the body’s long term stores.


41. An example of an important function of the colon would be its reabsorption of _____________ and _______________ , following the digestive process.


42. Reliable sources for information regarding nutrition are __________________ and _______________. (several possible answers)



43. In general, water soluble vitamins are easily destroyed by

1. _______________________________________ and

2. _______________________________________.

(more than two possible answers)


44. List two food preparation methods which preserve the content of water soluble vitamins.

1. _________________________________________________


2. _________________________________________________


45. What is a possible negative effect associated with taking megadose quantities of vitamin C (10 - 20 times the RDA) on a daily basis?





46. Review the following one-day diet:

Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner:

frosted flakes peanut butter & jelly McDonald's Qtr. Pounder

2 % milk sandwich on whole wheat Hamburger with white bun

black coffee bread large fries

apple large diet coke

ice tea

chocolate chip cookies

Name two vitamins and/or minerals which are lacking in this one day diet. (there are many more than two correct answers)

1. ________________________________________

2. ________________________________________

47. When reviewing an advertisement for a weight loss aide, list two clues which would indicate that the product is likely to be fraudulent.

1. _______________________________________________________

2. _______________________________________________________

48. There are many common over-the-counter drugs and prescription drugs which interfere with the metabolism and/or destroy water soluble vitamins in the body. List two drugs that are known to interfere with the water soluble vitamins. Hint: we discussed several of these drugs when reviewing folacin.

1. ___________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________

49. Why are the B vitamins, thiamin (B1), riboflavin(B2) and niacin(B3) added to many processed (non-whole grain) bread and cereal products?





50. Please help your teacher improve this section of the course by providing feedback.

1. What methods or strategies did you use to help learn/remember the functions of the vitamins and minerals?



2. Did you use the lecture notes when preparing for this test? yes no

If so, how could they be improved to assist in your preparation?









Answers to multiple choice, true/false questions, #1 – 30.

  1. b
  2. d
  3. a
  4. b
  5. a
  6. b
  7. d
  8. a
  9. a
  10. d
  11. d
  12. a
  13. b
  14. c
  15. b
  16. b
  17. b
  18. d
  19. c
  20. d
  21. a
  22. c
  23. a
  24. a
  25. b
  26. b
  27. a
  28. b
  29. b
  30. b