1) The man credited with developing the continental drift hypothesis is ______?
2) Name of the supercontinent that formed at the end of the Paleozoic Era is _____?
3) Name the five observations that Alfred Wegener noted to support his hypothesis of Continental Drift (Wegener did not know about paleomagnetism in 1915).
4) What was the name of the late Paleozoic continent that comprised North America? What was the name of the Paleozoic continent that comprised India, Australia, Africa, South America, and Antarctica?
5) Wegener matched coastlines, but why did his contemporaries disregard his hypothesis? What role did the continental shelves play in the continental fit?
6) Continental coastlines flux is one criteria used to reject the initial continental drift hypothesis. What were the other three?
7) For the southern supercontinent, how does the concordant glaciations support the existence of Pangea? (i.e., Paleoclimate and direction of glacial ice movement)
8) What is the concept of Polar Wandering?
9) Paleoclimate studies use our current understanding of Earth processes to predict where landmasses were in geologic history (i.e., glaciers near Poles, deserts in middle latitudes, coral reefs near equatorial latitudes). True or False?
10) Because each continent had different positions for the North and South Poles using paleoclimate studies, Wegener believed that there could not have possibly been multiple North and South Poles during the Paleozoic. What did he propose, continental drift or pole drift?
11) The generation of new oceanic crust at Mid-Oceanic ridges that then moves horizontally away from the ridge is known as _______________________.
12) Define Paleomagnetism.
13) Magnetite minerals in molten basalt act as tiny _________, which tell us the orientation of Earth’s Magnetic Field at the time of the rock’s crystallization.
14) A region of magnetic force encompassing the Earth has lines of force leaving near the South Pole and reenter the Earth near the North Pole. This is Earth’s _____.
15) When basaltic lava forms at a Mid-Oceanic Ridges, magnetite minerals act as tiny compass needles that point to the magnetic North Pole. If the magnetite minerals are aligned horizontal in the rock, then you are at (a) North Pole or (b) Equator?
16) What are magnetic reversals?
17) Who is responsible for proposing seafloor spreading (1962)? What was his occupation before being a full scientist?
18) This scientist had three criteria he used to question the age of the seafloor. One was the high number of young seamounts and guyots and no old ones, another was the flattened guyots, last was sedimentation rates in the ocean. What was his explanation for the flat-topped guyots? What was his explanation for the sedimentation rates?
19) Make a sketch that shows positive and negative readings on the magnetometer. Draw the magnetic stripes box below. Label the spreading center
20) Which of the following was not one of the hypotheses that Harry Hess had regarding seafloor spreading. A) Ocean floor no older than 200Ma (180 Ma) based on sedimentation rates; B) Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes; C) Mantle thermal convection cells; D) Mid-Ocean Ridges; E) Topographically high based on thermal gradient; F) Slow moving seismic waves under mid-ocean ridges; G) Rift valley and volcanoes in mid-ocean ridges?
21) What is the ultimate fate of oceanic lithosphere?
22) Marine magnetic anomalies are the alternating patterns of reverse and normal magnetized stripes on the seafloor that are symmetric about a spreading center. How did these originate (Fig. 4.16, page 86)?
23) How are the distinctive patterns of marine magnetic anomalies used to predict the age of the sea floor?