Geology 001B West Valley College
Historical Geology R. Lopez
Study Questions: Darwin and Natural Selection (Chapter 7 p. 181-205)
Box 7-1, page 196. What two factors in species traits contribute to mass Extinctions? In the modern era, the largest number of Extinctions are related to what human cause??
- Define Evolution and how it relates to Adaptations.
- Know what adaptations are and be able to give some examples.
- Darwin invented evolution. True or False?
- What was Charles Darwin’s contribution to the Theory of Evolution?
- Name the three components of the Theory of Natural Selection.
- Recall "advantage traits are selected by nature".
- Write out the formula for Natural Selection and define each of the variables.
- Nature is defined as what?
- What was J.B. Lamarch (1809) hypothesis of inheritance of acquired characteristics (the long necks in giraffes).
What was Darwin’s limitation in really pushing through his hypothesis of natural selection?
What are chromosomes, DNA, and genes?
What contribution to Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection did Gregor Mendel (1860’s) make? What are alleles and what is particular inheritance?
Is it correct to say "survival of the fittest"?
Besides variations in traits (genetic make-up) of the offspring, what other source of variation can result in a change in the characteristics of the organism?
What are mutations? Use and example of a mutation that may alter an organism for beneficial, neutral, or harmful traits.
What is Allopatric Speciation? (Think about the Galapagos – see page 187.)
Define and graph both Phyletic Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium. What are some of the arguments for both of these modes of Evolutionary Rates?
Give some examples of evolutionary trends. Is this a positive criterion for Phyleticc Gradualism?
Origination and Radiation of New Species may take three independent paths. What are these?
Give examples of all three Radiation of New Species using organisms discussed in lecture or in your text.
What occurs during the extinction of species?
In terms of extinction rates, do mammal species or marine species have a longer average time span of existence for that particular species?
What are mass Extinctions.
Which was a more devastating mass extinction, the terminal Cretaceous-Tertiary or terminal Permian-Triassic?