Geology 001B                                                                                                                       West Valley College

Historical Geology                                                                                                 R. Lopez

Study Questions 13: Proterozoic Expansion of Continents (Assembly of North America)


1.        What is continental accretion?  What is orogenic stabilization? What is crustal remobilization? (see pages 329-330 in text)



2.        What is a croton?  What is a Precambrian shield?  What is the Canadian Shield?



3.        What are the Archean geologic provinces of North America? (see fig. 12-16 p. 332)



4.        Reconstruct a map like Fig. 12-14 and label the Major Geologic Features of North America.



5.        What does the Hudson Belt represent?



6.        What was the rate of continental accretion during the Proterozoic (see page 332 in text)?



7.        What is the definition of Laurentia?  Was Laurentia part of a large craton during Mesoproterozoic time?



8.        What happened in central and eastern North America between 1.2 Ga nd 1.0 Ga?  What are the names of these lavas?



9.        What are the Grenville Orogenies?  What age are the Grenville Orogenies?  What supercontinent developed as a result of the Grenville Orogenies?



10.     What happened to this supercontinent around 700 Ma?



11.     What are and what is the age of the Pan African Orogenies?  What supercontinent formed during this time?  Was Laurentia part of this new supercontinent?



12.     Are there any areas found today in North America that were once part of the Pan African Orogenies?