Uses & Abuses of the Ocean, Ch 15
1. List some physical and biological resources.
2. What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources?
3. What is the difference between resources and reserves?
4. What are the ocean’s three most valuable physical resources? How does the contribution of each ocean physical resource to the world economy compare to the contribution of that resource derived from land?
5. Does the ocean provide a substantial percentage of all protein needed in human nutrition? How about in all animal protein?
6. What is the most valuable biological resource?
7. What is the fastest growing fishery?
8. What is a nonextractive resource? Give some examples.
9. What is pollution? What factors determine how dangerous a pollutant is?
10. Why is refined oil more hazardous to the marine environment than crude oil? Which is spilled more often?
11. What heavy metals are most toxic? How do these substances enter the ocean? How do they move from the ocean to marine organisms and people?
12. Few synthetic organic chemicals are dangerous in the very low concentrations in which they enter the ocean. How are these concentrations increased?
13. What can be the outcome when these toxins are ingested by organisms in a marine food chain? What is this process called
14. Where in the body are these toxins concentrated?
15. What synthetic chemicals appear to be causing depletion of Earth’s protective ozone layer? What is the likely result?
16. What is eutrophication? How is it destructive to the marine environment?
17. How are plastics detrimental to marine life, especially plastic pellets?
18. What is the greenhouse effect? Is it always detrimental?
19. What gases contribute to the greenhouse effect?
20. Why do most scientists believe that Earth’s average surface temperature will increase over the next few decades? What may result?
21. Why does the incidence of malignant melanoma – the most dangerous form of skin cancer – appear to be rising worldwide?
22. What, if anything, can be done to minimize the environmental disturbances that result for the exploitation of marine resources?
23. What are the main threats to coral reefs today & what can be done to change the situation?
24. Name 2 fishing methods used commercially & indicate how these are destructive to non-target species or to the ocean environment?
25. Why are estuaries important to marine life & what are the causes of habitat loss in estuaries and coastal wetlands?
26. What are the 4 main threats to ocean life today?
27. What types of marine animals are harvested as food? What sea life is called “shellfish”?
28. Where are most of the global fisheries located in the world’s oceans?
29. What is the current status of the world’s major fisheries?
30. What can society do to better manage our fisheries?
31. What is the difference between a marine sanctuary and a marine reserve?
32. How does the history of whaling show us that unlimited harvests will ultimately decimate populations of marine organisms?
33. What happened to the people of Easter Island (page 328)? What lessons can we learn from them?
34. What can you do to minimize you impact on the ocean and atmosphere (p.330-332)?
35. What will you do? Start doing it now!