Exam #2 Study Guide - Spring 2013
|Exam Date & Start Times:||26 March 2013
9:20AM Lab section - Exam begins at 10:00am (please arrive 5 minutes prior)
12:50PM Lab section - Exam begins at 1:00pm (please arrive 5 minutes prior)
Bring to each lab exam:
- #2 pencils,
- large eraser,
- scantron #882,
- calculator (no sharing calculators, no phones)
All other materials must be put away (i.e. in cabinets or at the front or side of the room). Scratch paper, graph paper and other materials will be provided as necessary.
The exam is worth 125 points and consists of a mix of true/false, multiple choice as well as fill-in, short answer and problem solving questions (be sure to bring a calculator!) and will cover all material from BOTH the lecture and the lab. You will have 2 hours (possibly more, if needed) to complete the exam so their should not be any time pressure. Note that once the exam begins you will not be able to leave and return (please visit the rest room prior to test time). Remember, you will be evaluated based on what you write on the test not on what you meant, so show your work and be sure your answers are clear.
How to study:
You should review all of the lecture and lab material since the previous exam which includes the following lectures and associated labs:
|Lecture Topics:||Chpts||Lab Topics:||Manual|
|Muscle Physiology I-III||11, 12||Muscle Physiology I: Human||12|
|Neurophysiology I-III||6, 8||Muscle Physiology II: Frog||12|
|Nervous System: ANS||11||Reflexes||8|
|Nervous System: Sensory||9, 10||Neurophysiology: Action Potential||7|
|Sensory Physiology||9, 10, 11|
Remember, both lecture and laboratory material will be covered on the exam. Use your text, lecture outlines, notes, lab materials, quizzes and assigned reading as your guide to the material you need to know.
Although you should have a clear understanding of all the material covered in all lectures and labs, the exam will be more heavily weighted towards certain topics. Be aware that the use of mathematics and graphs are an integral part of physiology and thus are likely to be an integral part of your answers. Be prepared to perform calculations and answer questions based on displayed data records (i.e. PowerLab) and to explain physiological mechanisms.
Below is a list of the major topics that are on the test and the approximate distribution of these topics (expressed as a percentage). Note: use this list with caution, the proportions are approximate. The italicized lists are intended as a general guide only - please refer back to your lecture outlines, notes, and labs for a complete review of what was covered under each of these topic categories. Remember, your primary "study guides" are the lecture outlines, lab reports and your notes.
(1) Muscle Physiology (~35-40%)
- know the structure of the skeletal muscle cell (and function of all parts)
- describe innervation and control of skeletal muscle
- describe a muscle twitch (characteristics and phases)
- describe the physiological events that produce the latent period and the contraction period
- explain all factors that can influence contraction strength
- describe temporal and spatial summation, and tetanus
- describe how muscle contraction is coordinated in vivo
- describe the factors that lead to muscle fatigue
- describe and compare the characteristics of smooth and cardiac muscle to skeletal muscle
(2) Neurophysiology (~35-40%)
- describe the mechanism producing the resting membrane potential
- define and describe graded potentials (location, associated channel type, characteristics)
- define and describe action potentials (location, associated channel type, characteristics)
- describe the different phases of an action potential and cause of each phase
- describe the stages of voltage gated sodium channel activation and innactivation
- compare and contrast graded potentials and action potentials (i.e. location, channels, characteristics)
- describe the sequence of action potential events and associated refractory periods
- describe the structure and function of the synapse
- define and describe temporal and spatial summation
- describe how the amplitude of a stimulus is represented at all points along a neuron, including at the synapse between neurons
(3) Nervous System: ANS (~10-15%)
- describe the different divisions of the peripheral nervous system (emphasis on efferent)
- compare and contrast the SANS and PANS with respect to structure and function
(4) Nervous System: Sensory (~20-25%)
- describe the different sensory receptor classes, and basic characteristics of sensory systems
- define "modality" & sensory adaptation, differentiate between "phasic" and "tonic" receptors
- describe the distribution of cutaneous receptors, explain the "two point threshold"
- define and explain the mechanism and significance of referred pain
- describe the structure of the ear and the function of all its component parts
- describe and differentiate between conduction and sensory-neural deafness
- explain how sound intensity and tone are distinguished
- describe the mechanism of accommodation and the common defects in visual acuity
- explain how we see the full color spectrum, and color "afterimages"
- describe how visual acuity, color sensitivity and light sensitivity vary from the central to the peripheral retina
Note: Exam questions will be on par with questions on quizzes, questions in the lab manual (lab activities and reports) and study guide questions associated with the lecture outlines. Suggested study tips include: reviewing your lecture notes, all of the labs and the assigned reading in the text (Silverthorn). When you have completed your review try to answer all of the lecture outline study questions and ALL of the questions in the lab manual (lab reports). Questions at the end of the chapters in the text (Silverthorn) may also be worth reviewing (caution: some of the textbook questions may emphasize concepts not pertinent to this class). If you can answer all of the questions you should be well prepared for the exam. Next, get together with a small group and review what you have learned. Rooms are available in the SM building (SM 55F - biology study room, SM 5 - math resource center), the library and in the Fox building for group study. There is a lot to learn in this class, take advantage of all the resources available to you, do all of your reading, review your notes, form a study group, and ask questions. Remember, studying is work, but I hope you are also finding physiology interesting and I hope you are enjoying what you are learning. With effort you will find that you can learn a tremendous amount! You have learned a lot already!