Principles of Animal Biology - Study Sheets
Phylum Arthropoda I
Introduction; Subphylum Chelicerata; Subphylum Myriapoda
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The following questions will help you to review the material from the lecture, the laboratory, as well as the text.

  1. Describe the diversity of the phylum Arthropoda.
  2. What do these animals all have in common (what are their shared characteristics)?
  3. How many arthropods have been described at the current time? How many are thought to exist on our planet?
  4. What is metamerism? How has the process of tagmosis and metamerism favored the success of the phylum Arthropoda?
  5. Describe the specific structure of the exoskeleton. Name the different layers of the insect integument.
  6. How is the exoskeleton produced? What is it made of?
  7. What is the function of the exoskeleton. Give four examples.
  8. Discuss the disadvantages with an exoskeleton.
  9. Describe the process of ecdysis in an arthropod. How does a newly molted arthropod differ from one that molted a couple of weeks earlier?
  10. What is metamorphosis? Briefly describe the process and give examples of arthropods in which the process is found.
  11. What is the ecological advantage of having metamorphosis as a part of the life cycle of the organism?
  12. What are the names of the five different subphyla traditionally found within the phylum Arthropoda?
  13. Briefly describe a trilobite. When did these animals dominate the oceans of our planet? What happened to this diverse group of animals?
  14. Characterize the subphylum Chelicerata. Give examples of animals found within this taxon.
  15. What are the names of the two tagmata that make up the body of these animals? What kind of physiological functions are found in each of the two tagmata?
  16. Describe the chelicerae of these animals. What is their function?
  17. Name the three classes of the subphylum Chelicerata. How do they differ from each other?
  18. What are horseshoe crabs?
  19. What kind of animals are found in the class Arachnida? What are the names of the orders in this class?
  20. Describe the anatomy of a spider.
  21. How do spiders feed? Describe the physiology of feeding in these animals. How do they kill the animal? How do they gain access to nutrients? How do they digest the food after taking it in? Where is the food absorbed?
  22. How do spiders remove waste products from their bodies (excretion)?
  23. Describe the process of gas exchange in spiders as it occurs in book lungs as well as in the tracheal system. What are the main differences between the process in these two types of respiratory systems?
  24. What kind of circulatory system is found in these animals? How does it work? How are blood gases transported?
  25. How do spiders reproduce? Describe the encounter between a male and female spider and how the male transfers sperms cells to the female.
  26. What are pedipalps? Spermatophores?
  27. Briefly describe the reproductive behavior of tarantulas as explored in the film seen in lab.
  28. Female spiders often produce an egg sac that they then guard. Briefly describe the life of very young spiders. What do they feed on? How do they get around?
  29. Describe the life cycle of a spider.
  30. Describe the diversity of spiders.
  31. Briefly describe the body of a scorpion. How do they capture prey? What kind of senses do they use to detect their prey?
  32. Which two spiders should one watch out for in the state of California? Why?
  33. Describe at least five different hunting techniques used by spiders.
  34. How do spiders produce webs? What are the webs used for? Briefly describe some characteristics of the silk that makes it such a fantastic building material.
  35. Do all spiders produce webs? Why or why not?
  36. Do spiders learn how to build a web or is this skill genetically determined? Explain!
  37. Briefly describe the evolution of the different types of spider webs. Why did these different web designs evolve?
  38. What are harvestmen? How do they differ from spiders?
  39. Briefly discuss the natural history of mites. What do they look like? Are there any mites of importance to humans?
  40. Describe the body structure of a tick? What do these animals feed on? Describe the life cycle of ticks.
  41. What kind of diseases can be transferred by a tick?
  42. What are sea spiders? Where can you find them? What do they look like? What do they feed on?
  43. Characterize the subphylum Myriapoda. Give examples of animals found within this taxon.
  44. Characterize the class Diplopoda.
  45. Briefly describe the natural history of millipedes. What do they feed on? Where can you expect to find them (and why)?
  46. How do these animals defend themselves against predators?
  47. Characterize the class Chilopoda.
  48. How do centipedes differ from millipedes? In terms of external anatomy? In terms of behavior?
  49. What do centipedes feed on? What parts of their anatomy indicates such a diet?
  50. What do you know about the natural history of centipedes?
  51. Summarize: What are the characteristics of the phylum Arthropoda?
  52. Summarize: What are the characteristics of the subphylum Chelicerata?
  53. Summarize: What are the characteristics of the subphylum Myriapoda?
  54. Summarize: What are the names of the different taxa that you encountered in this section? Make a table. Memorize the taxa.




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Page created by: Peter Svensson
Updated: March 28,  2014