Principles of Animal Biology - Study Sheets
The Circulatory SystemReturn to the Study Guides Index

The following questions will help you to review the material from the lecture and the text.

  1. What is the function of the circulatory system in animals? What kinds of physiological tasks are accomplished by the system?
  2. Give five examples of molecules/compunds transported by the circulatory system in animals?
  3. Some animals do not have a circulatory system. Why is that?
  4. Discuss the relationship between surface area and volume. How does this concept apply to the circulatory system?
  5. What is the difference between an open and a closed circulatory system? Give examples of animals in which these systems are found.
  6. Describe the circulatory system in fishes, amphibians, reptiles (recall that Crocodilians have system more similar to birds/mammals), birds and mammals.
  7. How does the blood flow in the circulatory system of a fish? A frog? A lizard? A crocodile? A hawk? A zebra?
  8. How are these systems similar to each other? How do they differ from each other?
  9. Describe the different types of blood vessels that you encounter in a vertebrate. How do these vessels differ from each other from an anatomical perspective? Can you relate their anatomy to their specific function in the circulatory system?
  10. What is blood pressure? How is it measured? What are you actually measuring when you measure the blood pressure of an individual?
  11. How does the blood pressure vary between arteries, capillaries and veins? Explain.
  12. What is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
  13. Why do large arteries contain a large amount of elastic connective tissue?
  14. What is the function of valves in veins? Describe how they function in the circulatory system.
  15. Tissues and organs do not need the same amount of blood flow. The demand can also vary depending on movement or other processes occurring in the body. How is the flow of blood controlled?
  16. Which type of blood vessel contain the highest volume of blood at any given time?
  17. Describe the overall anatomy of a human heart in terms of its location in the human body.
  18. Describe the anatomy of a human heart. Name chambers, large vessels as well as the names of the valves.
  19. What is the function of the valves in the heart?
  20. What is heart murmur?
  21. Describe the flow of blood in the heart.
  22. Imagine a red blood cell present in your brain. The cell returns towards the heart. Which chamber of the heart will this blood cell first encounter?
  23. Imagine a red blood cell in the pulmonary artery. Which chamber of the heart will this blood cell first encounter?
  24. Describe the heart cycle in a  human.
  25. What is the role of the SA node in heart contraction? The AV node. What do the terms stand for?
  26. Describe how the signals generated by the SA node triggers a sequential contraction of the heart muscle.
  27. What is an ECG/EKG? What does it measure? What can you learn from an ECG/EKG?
  28. What is atherosclerosis? What are the possible consequences of atherosclerosis?
  29. What kind of factors are involved in triggering this disease?
  30. What is the difference between a stroke and a heart attack? What are the possible medical treatments for either of these?

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Page created by: Peter Svensson
Updated: March 28,  2014